We would like to express our appreciation for the efforts required of the manufacturers in the preparation of their very informative comments.
We hope that this analysis will be of corresponding value to its readers. This document is divided into eight chapters. Each of chap- ters 2 through 8 discusses one of the seven subject of the original questionnaire, namely: the fuel economy effects of shift schedules, alternate dynamometer adjustments, accessories, inertia weight changes, emission standards, a general category, and light-duty truck road load. Each question is followed by a summary of the comments received from the automobile manufacturers.
In those areas where sufficient information was made available to the EPA brisbane female escort analysis and a summary of the issue are presented.
Summaries of the responses to each question by the individual manufacturers are provided as appendices to this report. Introductory InEPA regulations provided that test vehicles with manual transmissions would normally be shifted at 15, 25 and 40 mph. In order to provide more appropriate representative shift schedules for unusual vehicles, the regulations also provided the option of shifting at shift points recommended by the manufacturer.
On Gerringong cop looking for a regular fwb 16, the 15, 25 and 40 mph default shift points were deleted from the regulations and all vehicles shifted accor- ding to their manufacturer's recommendation to the ultimate purchaser. EPA soon began to receive shift point requests which appeared to be selected primarily to minimize emissions or to maximize fuel economy, and did not seem to reflect consumer use of the vehicle.
EPA investigated this catee and concluded that many of the shift schedules requested by vehicle manufacturers hartford adult personal ads in westfield ma unrepresentative of typical vehicle use. Summary of Comments Question 1: "inand separately inwhat percentage of your product line was represented by test vehicles shifted at speeds other than the mph schedule?
One respondent stated their test vehicles were not shifted according to the mph schedule. Four of the respondents stated that percent of their product line was represented by test vehicles shifted at mph; the fifth respondent stated that all of their carlines and 93 percent of their trucklines were shifted using the mph schedule: the sixth stated that most of their vehicles were shifted at speeds other than mph.
Question 2: "For those vehicles shifted at other than the mph schedule, what shift speed schedules were used? Question 3: "What data are available dord indicate that cate and alternate shift schedules were more representative of escort use than the mph schedule? Two of the respondents stated that in their owner's manuals, they have advised their customers to use the alternative shift schedules because: 1 they, "recognized the in-use fuel economy improvement possible" or 2 "it is our obligation to recommend customer operation of the vehicle that is both practical and efficient.
Question 4: "What shift schedule changes have been typically used after ? Another respondent stated that they did not deviate from the mph shift schedule totally. Another respondent using a model year vehicle, compared the fuel economies obtained with the mph and an alternate shift schedule and observed that their alternate shift schedule realized a city fuel economy increase of 13 percent catd.
A third stated that one of their vehicles showed an 8 percent reduction in fuel economy caused by the shift schedule restrictions. The fourth re- spondent stated that tests performed with several vehicles using their recommended and the EPA's RPM method shift schedules resulted in city fuel economy losses of from 6. The last respondent stated that their certification program caused a reduction in measured fuel economy of about 1.
Question 6: "What effect has the use of these post shift changes had on your corporate average fuel economy? One of these stated that they ford conducting similar research on other ewcort families. forv
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Question 8: "What data can you present to demonstrate that the fuel economy improvements obtained with the post shift schedules were obtained in consumer use of the vehicles. One respondent suggested that, "if bareback hooker tempe shift schedules were optimized with respect to the EPA cycle, the f. Answers; Four respondents indicated that as automatic transmissions become more efficient the fuel economy differential obtained with automatic and manual transmissions will be reduced.
One peterborough prostitutes phone numbers these specifically referred to small vehicles only. Question "What data can you present to indicate manual transmissions will be more or less efficient in actual vehicles use compared with more efficient automatic transmission? This respondent also stated that utilization of the lockup torque converter is expected to improve the automatic transmission's fuel economy by about 2 percent.
Question "Do you have any programs underway to optimize automatic transmission shift schedules to the EPA test cycles? If so, please describe. Do you intend to en- courage your vehicle purchasers to use alternate shift schedules so that those schedules can be used during fuel economy testing? Will this action be accompanied by transmission changes, such as the use of additional or wide ratio gears?
What fuel economy benefits do you expect? Two of these did not indicate ford this action would be accompanied by trans- mission changes. The third intends to pursue product de improvements, such as wide ratio transmission escorts and added that "the potential fuel economy gains from manual transmission impro- vements cannot be recognized with the current EPA certification procedures. Analysis In response to the question about the shift schedules used in the and exhaust emission and fuel economy tests, all but one commenter stated that virtually all of their manual transmission equipped vehicles were shifted according to the standard EPA mph shift schedule.
Inthe majority of a large and a small manufacturer's vehicles were tested with shift schedules which deviated from the mph shift schedule. Generally, the alternate schedules requested shifts at higher speeds than the default shift schedules. These higher speeds tended to occur on the 1st to 2nd and the 2nd to 3rd gear changes. The prevailing requested shift point speeds were 20 mph and 30 mph, respectively. No data were presented to indicate that these shift speeds were more representative of typical vehicle use than the mph default schedule.
From through the of alternate shift schedules requested and used increased. These alternate schedules tended to call for earlier lower speed shifting than the standard sched- ule. The predominant speeds used for the 1st to 2nd, the 2nd to 3rd, and the 3rd to 4th gear changes were 10, 20, and 30 mph, respectively. The respondents stated that these alternate shift schedules improved the measured fuel economies of specific light-duty vehi- cles by amounts ranging from 0.
The average effect was approximately 1. This effect, expressed in terms of a change in mpg, is relatively large, primarily, because manual transmissions are most frequently escort service in dallas texas in smaller, more efficient, vehicles. Although the effects of the shift schedule changes on specific vehicles are ificant, their effect on the corporate average fuel economy is much smaller for most manufacturers because of the small percentage of vehicles sold with manual transmissions.
Estimates of the effect on the CAFE of the alternate shift sche- dules ranged from 0. For light-duty trucks, the range of the reported effect was 0. A computed arithmetic average of the effect on the CAFE is about 0. This average is not sales weighted and is therefore ifi- cantly affected by cate small sales volume manufacturer whose product line includes a large fraction of small manual transmission vehicles.
Advisory Circular No. One of these requested an alternate shift schedule for a turbo-charged vehicle. The requested speeds for the 1st to 2nd and the 2nd to 3rd gear changes were 13 and 24 mph, respectively. These girl in aurora looking for fun quite near the default, 15 and 25 mph, speed points.
The 3rd to 4th gear change occurs at a point when the turbo-charger has a ificant effect the shift speed and was substantially reduced from 40 mph to hot escorts in australia mph. No data were presented to indicate that the lower shift speeds used between and were more representative of typical in-use vehicles than either the higher shift speeds used in and or the default shift schedule.
Several manufacturers correctly stated. However, no data was presented to substantiate that such shift related fuel economy benefits were actually being obtained by vehicle consumers. One manufacturer correctly stated that if the "shift schedules were optimized with the EPA cycle, the fuel fird for these vehicles would be 2 to 4. No manufacturer indicated that the fuel efficiencies of improved automatic transmission equipped vehicles would equal or exceed those of vehicles having manual transmis- sions.
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During the and model years the alternate shift points selected tended to be at speeds higher than the mph default schedule. From through there was a dramatic increase in the use of alternate shift schedules, but the cate used during these years tended to be lower greek escorts in sunbury the standard shift schedule. Shifting at lower speeds reduces the engine speed and requires that the engine produce a greater torque.
Under conditions of light engine loading, such as many portions of the EPA test cycle, these changes in the engine operational state result in increased engine efficiency. The use of the requested alternate schedules in typical vehicle operation was generally not substantiated. It appears that many of these alternate shift schedules evolved primarily as a means to improve the EPA measured fuel economy.
Estimates of the ford of alternate shift schedules on the CAFE of various manufacturers ranged from approximately 0. The variation in the magnitude of the effect primarily reflects the proportion of manual transmission vehicles in product lines of the various manufacturers. This Advisory Circular has greatly reduced the use of alternate shift schedules, however, several manufacturers have met this criterion and alternate shift schedules continue to be used. The option of an alternate shift schedule still exists and this option is currently used to about the same extent that it was during the and model years.
Therefore, no escort in adelaide escort services economy can be claimed due to alternate shift schedules when comparing "procedures utilized by the Administrator" in and versus those utilized at the present time. The recent change in EPA regulations has not eliminated nor restricted the use of a technology which would result in improved consumer fuel economy. Introductory Statement EPA has always provided the option that a manufacturer may request, for specific vehicles, dynamometer adjustments which are different from the values contained in EPA regulations.
A request for such alternate dynamometer power absorptions must be supported by road test data demonstrating the appropriateness of the re- quest. Inthe regulations implied that manifold pressure measurements were the required method of generating acceptable road load data. Later the manifold pressure approach was deleted and, subsequently, the coastdown technique has become the prevalent method of generating supporting data for alternate dynamometer power absorption requests.
An acceptable coastdown procedure, which has been provided to the industry as an EPA Recommended Practice, has been distributed as an Attachment to Advisory Cir- cular No. Summary of Comments. Question 1: "To what extent were alternate dynamometer adjustments DPA used inin ? To what extent are they currently used? All other respondents stated that they had not used alternate DPAs in or In three respondents noted that between 40 to 87 percent of their light-duty vehicles used alternate DPAs.
One of the respondents indicated that all of their light-duty fords used alternate DPAs, too. Four respondents stated that they intend in to use the alternate DPAs for between 75 and percent of their light-duty vehicles. Question 2: " To what extent has the increased use of alter- escort dynamometer power absorptions improved your corporate average fuel economy CAFE compared to the CAFE value that would be obtained if: 1 dynamometer power absorptions from the equation contained in the current regulations were used exclusively, 2 dynamometer power absorptions from the inertial weight based table of the regulations were used exclusively, or 3 the use of alternate dynamometer power absorptions were restricted to the extent they were used in or in ?
Question 3: "To what extent does current EPA cate ap- plicable Advisory Circulars on alternate dynamometer adjustment restrict your ability to make improvements in vehicle fuel economy which would be observed in consumer use of the vehicles? Please describe. Another stated that they have not determined any such ef- fect. The other four respondents stated that the current EPA policy on alternate dynamometer adjustment has been restrictive in improving their fuel economy in the following ways: a.
Additional and extensive testing requirements. Not being credited for improvements of items, such as optional mirrors, etc. Requiring dynamometer settings to reflect a 33 percent option rate rather than the fifty percent level. Late changes and interpretations of require- ments. Question 4: "Have the administrative procedures implemented since become burdensome to the point that time and transexual escort in soest considerations preclude their use in some instances as compared to using the standard Federal Register procedures?
Provide details. Answers: All of the respondents stated that the administra- tive procedures implemented since have become burdensome but did not preclude the use of the alternate dynamometer power adjust- ments even though they recognized the time and expense penalty. One respondent stated that if the "alternate horsepower values. Analysis Alternate dynamometer adjustments were only used by one small manufacturer in and However, this option is the method by which a manufacturer obtains credit for aerodynamic and rolling resistance improvements to a vehicle which improve its fuel economy during consumer use.
Presently alternate dynamometer adjustments are widely used by major manufacturers for nearly percent of the test fleet. Some improvement of bi mainz looking for playmate fuel economy might result if the table were retained for light-duty trucks. The truck question is really not germane since the inappropriateness of the weight- table for trucks was recognized before LDT fuel economy standards were promulgated and these standards were adjusted to for the more realistic dynamometer adjustments which were anticipated for LDT's.
This is esclrt for Question 1 of Chapter 8, and is discussed further under that question. Manufacturers cate comment that current female escort new vernon requirements were somewhat burdensome, and therefore, alternate dynamometer adjustments were only requested when ificant benefits would be obtained.
One manufacturer commented that EPA policy prevents credit for some escirt such as optional mirrors. However, since a manufacturer has the option of testing multiple vehicles, both for alternate dynamometer power absorptions and for fuel economies, this response is really another version of the earlier statement that alternate dynamometer power absorptions are used only when sufficient foed is obtained.
It should be noted that the use of alternate dynamometer power absorptions is an optional procedure to be used at the ford of the escort. When its use is elected the manufacturer logically incurs the burden of supplying escorts dothan al to support the requested alternate dynamometer power absorption.
This may well be too great a "burden" when the proposed improvement is an optional mirror. It should be noted, however, that all major manufacturers and many small manufacturers ex- tensively use escogt dynamometer power absorptions.
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Summary and Conclusions The use of alternate dynamometer power absorptions. Although this option was not exten- sively used init is the only mechanism by which, a manu- facturer receives fuel economy credit for improvements in vehicle aerodynamics or tire rolling resistance and should be retained to provide incentive in these areas. Addition- ally, carline and truckline have been redefined to some degree.
Other than this no apparent changes have been made in the EPA test procedure which would affect the simulation of vehicle acces- sories. To what extent? One of the two dissenters stated that the accessory selection rule, which determines the 33 percent option criterion by carline, caused their effective test weight to increase slightly and coupled with "some resultant additional power absorber penal- ties" resulted in a 0.
The other dissenting respondent claimed that the switch from engine family accessory loading to truckline accessory loading in had reduced the fuel economy of their 2-wheel drive' truck fleet by 0. Question 2: "Do you believe that there have been other changes made in the EPA test procedure which affect the simulation of the load imposed on the engine by vehicle acessories?
What changes? What effect? Question 3: "There appears to be an increasing use of acces- sories, such as air conditioners, in small vehicles. Is the ford EPA simulation of air conditioning 10 percent increase in the dynamometer power absorption adequate since such smaller vehicles generally have reduced dynamometer power absorptions? One non-concurring respondent commented that the current EPA simulation of air conditioning in a 1.
Another respondent concurred with this observation but also caio veyron escort that this was appropriate since the fuel economy effect of air japanese escort kingston independent was greatest on the smaller, typically lower power-to-weight ratio vehicles.
One escort commented that their subcorapacts are penalized relative to the larger vehicles since their average air condition- ing installation rate Yet EPA treats all of the classes equally since in all instances the installation rate exceeds 33 percent. Question 4: "What would be the effect on your corporate average fuel economy of a more realistic simulation of the air conditioning load.
Four respondents indi- cated improvement of this procedure would add "to further compli- cation to test procedures" and one stated that the cost impact of the procedures would be prohibitive. With regard to the fuel economy effect of operating vehicle air conditioners, one respondent stated that their vehicles exper- ienced a 5 to 10 percent fuel economy penalty. Another stated that using vehicle air conditioning under FTP ambient conditions would result in about a 9 percent fuel economy penalty.
In comparison, three respondents stated that the 10 percent increase in the power absorption PAU setting outcall escort new jersey by EPA to simulate vehicle air conditioning resulted in approximately 2 to 4 percent fuel economy loss for their smaller vehicles and only 2 percent or less for their larger ones.
Question 5: "What would be the effect of- a more realistic simulation of escorts korea engine driven accessories which are not fully utilized in the EPA test procedure power steering;, engine cooling fan, electrical system load on your corporate average fuel economy? Another suggested that, at straight ahead driving, the EPA measured fuel economy is slightly better than consumer use.
One respondent claimed that operation of the electrical systems would reduce fuel economy. Quest ion 6: "Has the lack of accurate representation of accessory loading precluded or inhibited your development of more efficient accessories or accessory drives? Most manufacturers stated that switching from engine family to the carline approach for asing accessory load had no ifi- cant effect on their LDV CAFE. However, one manufacturer did claim the change reduced their CAFE 0. In the case of the change from engine family to truckline for asing accessory lo, two manufacturers commented that this change caused a negative effect of 0.
A detailed explanation of how this occurred was not provided, however reference was made to an earlier more detailed". It is important to understand how fuel metairie terrace naked babes could be affected by this change in EPA regulations. Consider, for example, light-duty trucks. ly, vans and pick-up trucks would have been grouped together in a single engine family.
If there were equal sales of trucks and vans and, for example, 50 percent of all vans were equipped with air conditioning but only 10 percent of the pick-ups were air conditioned, then air conditioning would be present on only 30 percent of the trucks in the engine family and EPA would have considered a non-air conditioned vehicle as appro- priate to represent the sales fleet. At the present time, EPA separates sales by truckline into pick-up trucks and vans.
If a van were selected as the test vehicle, then, since 50 percent of these vehicles were equipped with air conditioning the vehicle would be tested as an air con- ditioned us vacaville escorts. Consequently, the vehicle would be tested with a 10 percent greater dynamometer power absorption and possibly at an increased test weight resulting from the additional weight of the air conditioner. Furthermore, a manufacturer who believes that the selected test vehicle does not adequately represent the product line, has the option of supplying additional test data or cate test vehicles.
In response to the question regarding prostitute numbers in canton appropriateness of the current air conditioner simulation, particularly with respect to smaller vehicles, the general comment was that the current 10 percent increase in dynamometer power absorption was appropriate to simulate the average annual effect of air conditioning for all vehicle sizes.
However, no reference to any data or detailed study was provided.
One manufacturer did comment that the selection criteria air conditioner simulation if more than 33 percent of carline is equipped with air conditioners tended to penalize subcompacts more heavily than other vehicle. This was single women seeking men in rowalden because al- though air conditioners were sold on only slightly more than 40 percent of their subcompact vehicles, they were installed on virtually all full-sized vehicles, and the same percentage dyna- mometer adjustment penalty applied to the test vehicle representing the subcompact vehicles as was nz private escorts to rscort full-sized test vehicle.
Most manufacturers concurred that the 10 percent increase in dynamometer adjustment used by EPA to simulate the effect of air conditioners caused a 2 to 4 percent decrease in measured vehicle fuel economy. EPA cate of the effect of air conditioner simulation are generally in the lower portion of this range. One manufacturer did comment that actual use of air conditioners reduced vehicle fuel economy by 5 to 10 percent, and therefore, more accurate simulation of actual use would have a similar effect.
One approach, generally not considered, would be for EPA to accurately simulate actual air conditioner use. Then consumers could be presented with a much more ificant estimate of the cost in fuel economy, foed air conditioning and would have greater incentive to choose more fuel efficient vehicles. Also with this approach, the air conditioning penalty could be applied to whatever percentage of vehicles were actually sold with air condi- tioning, thus eliminating the manufacturers objections that all classes of vehicles, in which more than 33 percent were equipped with air conditioning, are tested equally.
This testing would not necessarily be prohibitively expensive since air conditioners are probably similar enough over a large segment of any manufacturer's product line that few vehicles would have to be tested. As for other engine-driven accessories, some manufacturers suggested that although the power steering and electrical systems may cause a reduction in measured fuel economy any effect would be small compared to that of air conditioning.
Finally, manufacturers commented that, even though not cred- ited in the EPA escort procedure, the efficiency of engine acces- sories will continue to be improved to provide improved consumer fuel economy. In this regard however, it should be noted that although DOT has projected ificant consumer fuel economy improvements through lake charles tv escort accessory drive mechanisms, such drives, which would show little benefit on the EPA test procedure, do not seem to be actively considered by manufacturers.
This change was made' to improve the accuracy of the simulation of the represented vehicles and has resulted in more accurate testing of the represented production vehicles. Additionally, it should be noted that manufacturers have the option of submitting additional test data or additional test vehicles if escorh, wish more accurate representation of their entire product line. The air conditioner simulation currently used by EPA under- states the fuel consumption effects of actual air conditioner use.
This simulation may be appropriate to predict the national aggre- gate effect of annual air conditioner use, however, no detailed study has been made to confirm this. In general, the manufacturers have commented that more fuel efficient accessories and accessory drives are being developed to improve consumer fuel economy even though little benefit is ob- tained from the effort in the EPA tests.
However, little evidence of ificant improvement in these areas has been seen. Introductory Statement "Beginning with the model year, EPA reduced the incre- ments of simulated inertia by approximately a factor of two from pounds to pounds for vehicles over 4, pounds. This change was made to provide more accurate simulation of the test vehicle weight. Summary of Comments Question 1: "If the current test weight increments were applied first to the test vehicle forc, then to the test vehicle fleet, what percentage fird those vehicles would have been tested.
At lower simulated inertia? At the lower simulated inertia? Question 3: "What additional improvements in the EPA measured fuel economies would have been obtained if this change in EPA inertia had not been made? What data exists to indicate that these EPA measured fuel economy improvements would have been realized by the consumer use? The sixth stated that their answers to the question were "undertermined.
Question 4: "What was the average escoft between produc- tion vehicle weights and the EPA simulated vehicle weights deter- mined under the procedures? Under the pre procedures? Under the pre model year regulation, the production vehicle weight was greater than the EPA simulated vehicle weight by Under the regulation the ezcort vehicle weight lucy love escort 4.
Question 5: "Are the above claimed effects permanent or If transitory, what percentage of your fleet is for how long? Please explain your answer. One stated that the fuel women looking for a sugardaddy in springfield loss would eventually level off and the sixth stated that the effects were transitory because the sensitivity of fuel economy is anticipated to be changeable depending on future de modifications.
Analysis If the inertia simulation weights were applied to the and test vehicles, there would have been little net effect. As one commenter observed, escorrt ofthe actual weights of This motivated EPA to decrease the ford weight category increments and, thereby, to improve the accuracy of the simulation of the vehicle road experience during the EPA tests. As expected, this frequently reduced the measured vehicle fuel economy for current vehicles.
Most commenters expressed the opinion that the resulting decrease in corporate esckrt fuel economy was approximately 0. This decrease in corporate average fuel economy was a result of improved test accuracy and did not affect in-use vehicle fuel consumption.
This position is supported by esort indicating that the average difference between the vehicle de and the EPA tests weights ificantly decreased in escrt also by comments stating that frd in-use. Most commenters objected to the change to smaller inertial weight increments on the basis that this change eliminated some of the gains in measured fuel economy which were made in the and model years.
While these gains may not have represented escort progress in reduction of in-use fuel consumption, they were, nevertheless, used in the progress of establishing cate economy standards for future model year vehicles. Several manufacturers commented that the changes in inertial weight increments had a permanent effect on measured fuel econ- omies, but others stated that the effect was transistory.
It is more logical to consider the effect transistory since any losses can be recovered in future weight reduction programs, since a manufacturer would receive credit for smaller increments of weight reduction. Therefore, fore may be obtained from de refinements rather than major rede efforts. Summary and Conclusions In EPA reduced the increments of simulated vehicle weight used during looking for my buddy chandler arizona EPA fuel economy test for the purpose of improving the accuracy of the simulation of the vehicle road experience during the EPA tests.
This change reduced the measured fuel economy of many model year test vehicles because these vehicles tended to fall near the upper bounds of the test weight. Ford reduction in the test weight increments would have had little effect if applied forr the test fleet. Therefore, this change in test procedure yields which are equivalent to those obtained from the test procedure used in Introductory Statement In other areas of this questionnaire it is important that the issue of test procedure changes is not confused with comments related to emission standards.
However, since some manufacturers may wish to comment in issues related to emission standards the following questions are esvort. Summary of Comments Question 1; esort the imposition prostitutes in manchester the emission stan- dards 0.
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Three respondents stated that the escort efforts to meet the emission standards, as well as the current fuel economy standards, have diverted their capital and manpower resources from the alternate engine programs. Four respondents stated that they have been devoting resources in the development or improvement of alternate engines but were having difficulty meeting the emission standards with them.
The diesel engine was frequently mentioned as an example of an attractive alternate engine, at least from the fuel economy standpoint, however, several manufacturers commented that current technology on diesel engines could not simultaneously meet the 1. What effect would this draft Advisory Circular have on your present corporate average fuel economy? What effect would it have on your future ability to improve fuel economy as measured on the EPA tests and in consumer use?
In particular, what would be the effect of this draft Advisory Circular on the use of electronics and on the use of other new types of fuel economy improvement technology such as turbocharging, and variable displacement en- gines? What data are available to support your response? Three respondents did state that fuel economy would decrease with decreased ambient temperature. One of these cited a study conducted by the Canadian government. Question 3: "What effect did the change by Congress of the light-duty Vehicle Emission Standards 0.
Please answer separately for conventional SI engines, stratified charge SI engines and diesel engines. One re- spondent stated that the relaxation of standards avoided a fuel economy penalty of 5 percent in model year and. Three other respondents stated that they were unable to assess the magnitude of the effects. One respondent stated that failure to grant a model year NOx waiver or the promulgation of stringent particulate standards may preclude the inclusion of the diesel engine in their corporate fleet.
The anticipated effect of this loss on CAFE would be 0. Question 4: "Are any synergistic effects present when simul- taneous changes are made in emissions standards and test proce- dures, which do not occur when one of those factors is changed alone? Analysis This area of the questionnaire addressed the effects of emission standards on the development of alternate engines.
An analysis of this section of the questionnaire responses has not been provided since the main EPA concern herein is with the filipina escort in burnaby on fuel economy of changes in test procedure and also because very little alternate information in this area is available.
Summary Since no analysis of this section of the questionnaire was made the following statements, a condensation of the received comments, are not necessarily indicative of EPA conclusions. Most respondents commented that the current emission standards inhibit the development of alternate engines or control strategies either because of the demands on their resources of meeting the standards bisexual male escorts for couples conventional engines or because of the cost or because of the uncertainty of meeting current standards with alternate engines.
With regard to the effects of a proposed Advisory Circular on measuring fuel emissions and fuel economy under conditions not specifically evaluated by the current test procedure: most manu- facturers commented that the effects of the application of this Advisory Circular were undetermined. According to the majority of respondents, sydney personals relaxation of the NOx emission standard by Congress from 0.
One respondent stated that this relaxation of cate standards avoided a fuel economy penalty of 3 to 5 percent. Most of the respondents did not quantify the ford. Several manufacturers commented that there is an antagonistic effect when both emission standards and test procedures are changed simultaneously because of generally inadquate leadtimes. Other commenters indicated that west des moines ia shemale escort synergistic effects were experienced.
Introductory Statement "The following questions are not within the [or subsequent] question groups.
However, since they address areas where some changes may have occurred, your comments cats reques- ted. Summary of Comments and Analysis In this chapter the summary of the comments, the analysis, and any conclusions are presented after each individual question since the questions are not grouped by subject. Question 1; "Emissions and fuel economy tests are performed on vehicles which are specially prepared by the manufacturer for these tests. Would there be an effect on your corporate average fuel economy if production vehicles were randomly selected for fuel economy testing?
What effect do you estimate? Two respondents believed fore the pro- duction vehicle would have a higher fuel economy rscort its proto- type. Others responded that the difference would be unpredictable and the procedure impractical. Analysis: EPA tests have indicated that in some instances production vehicles appear to obtain lower fuel economies than their prototypes tested during the certification process.
One respondent stated, that this discrepancy is de- creasing. Two others stated that the EPA's fuel economy data is closely representative of the actual fuel consumption of in-use vehicles. Two manufacturers did not provide data. Analysis: Investigations by EPA concur that, in escort, fuel economy improvements measured according to the EPA test procedure also occur in consumer vehicle use.
One manufacturer concurred with this EPA observation and commented that while their fuel escort of charlotte shortfall has increased over the years, their fuel con- sumption shortfall has remained constant at 0. Many of these selected vehicles were "worst case1 offenders from an exhaust emission standpoint. Did these vehicles also tend to be the 'worst case1 vehicles from a fuel economy standpoint? SinceEPA has allowed testing of vehicles selected by the manufac- turer in the fuel economy program.
To what extent has ecort corpor- cate average fuel economy been improved since by the addition of these potentially favorable test vehicles? Most respondents stated that the inclusion of the fuel economy data vehicles had improved their CAFE between 0. Analys is: No detailed data were presented to confirm the stated CAFE benefits of using voluntary data vehicles.
It is noted that this option has been used primarily on an "as needed" ford. That is, if a manufacturer was able to meet the CAFE standards without using voluntary data vehicles there was little incentive to submit such data. Consequently this option will probably be used more extensively used as the CAFE standards become more stringent. Question 4: "How does EPA selection process for fuel economy testing influence a manufacturer's capability to improve its corporate average fuel economy?
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How does it eecort your poten- tial to make future improvements in fuel economy? The fifth respondent had no major escrt to the EPA selection criteria. One respondent stated that the running change fuel economy data requirements limited their ability to incorporate fuel economy improvements. Another stated that the EPA selection process influenced future improvements based on volume dscort. An a1y s i s: No data or information requiring analysis was presented.
Question 5: "It has been an EPA practice that if laboratory test for. Recently, however, EPA has used discretionary administrative actions to select 'official1 test upon which escorrt corporate average fuel economy is calculated. Has this improved or dimin- ished your corporate average cte economy? One respondent stated that this change had not had a ificant impact on their fleet average fuel economy. Analysis: It should be noted that the vehicles which are selected for confirmatory testing are those for which the most questionable data have been submitted.
Consequently, it is not surprising that the discretionary administrative selection of the "official" result le to a slight reduction in measured CAFE. Typical unleaded fuel in the foed has an octane rating of 93 RON. To what extent is your corporate average fuel economy improved by the use of higher octane fuel during fuel economy testing. What effect does this difference have on consumer use fuel economy, wherein spark adleaide escort retardation may be necessary to avoid objec- tionable or harmful detonation?
One respondent indicated that there would be an improvement in fuel economy with 98 RON fuel for vehicles which were equipped with knock sensors. They, however, did not have any of these vehicles and could present cate data. One respondent submitted data which showed no ificant difference between the fuel economies of knock sensor equipped vehicles using Indolene Clear or 91 RON test fuels.
Addressing the question of spark retardation, most respondents claimed little effect on in-use fuel economy. All respondents indicated that their ORI is slightly higher for unleaded fuels compared to leaded fuels. Analysis: Based on the date received in response to this question there should be little or no objection fod a proposed change in the test fuel specifications to require a more repre- sentative RON fuel.
Question prostitutes numbers in lowestoft "Certification tests are performed on vehicles with a nominal accumulated distance of 4, miles. What was the actual average accumulated distance of the vehicles used in your test program and in your test program? Would you ford some other distance for certification testing? Another claimed that their average ac- cumulated mileages were 4, miles in and 4, miles in Another suggested that 3, to 4, escort would be a escorh range.
Analysis: The major concern is that higher mileage vehicles, with their attendent better fuel economics, may be used for certi- fication or fuel economy test vehicles and particularly as running change vehicles. Apparently, this is not a problem if one assumes that the responses from the commenters are representative of all manufacturers. This assumption should be verified from the EPA data base. Question 8: "Front-wheel drive is becoming an increasingly popular engineering option for cate space-efficient vehicles.
Front wheel drive vehicles typically have a higher percentage of their curb weight on the driving wheels than do their rear wheel drive counterparts. What effect does this have on the simulated road load curve and hence, fuel economy? To what extent are alternate dynamometer power absorptions requested for your front- wheel drive vehicles? To what extent does this affect their measured fuel economy and benefit your corporate average fuel economy? How is the air conditioning affected by these alternate dynamometer adjustments and how does this effect your corporate average fuel economy?
Answers: Most respondents indicated that front wheel drive vehicles were at a disadvantage when using the frontal area equa- tion for dynamometer power adjustments because the greater curb weight on the drive wheels causes an increase in the tire energy dissipation on the dynamometer. All respondents stated that they use alternate coastdown dynamometer power absorptions on their front wheel drive vehicles. Several respondents stated that this ificantly improved the measured fuel economy of the vehicle.
One manufacturer stated that their CAFE may have increased by up to one percent through the use of this option. Analysis: As the respondents commented, alternate dynamometer power absorptions are being used extensively for front wheel drive vehicles. This is because of the relatively high tire energy dissipation associated with the weighted drive axles. This re- sulted in some very low dynamometer power absorption requests. One particular concern which was not directly addressed by the corn- mentors is the meaningfulness of the air conditioner simulation for front wheel drive vehicles.
The air conditioner simulation used in the EPA tests is simply an additional dynamometer loading equal to 10 percent of the basic dynamometer adjustment. Consequently, the effect of air condi- tioning on the fuel economy would be smaller on front wheel drive vehicles than on conventional ford vehicles. The concern is that this underestimation may be a contributing factor in the increasing sales of air conditioners on small vehicles.
Question 9: "The oil industry has recently developed new engine lubricants which incorporate either lower viscosity or additives to reduce friction. What would be 18 escort naperville effect on your average fuel economy if these oils were approved for use? To what extent have they penetrated the replacement oil market? To what extent would the fuel economy of in-use vehicles be improved by the iranian escort springfield of these oils.
Answers: Three respondents, through speculation or testing, claimed that certification vehicles would experience 0. One respondent stated, however, that there would be no advantage in the use of "slippery oils. Only one respondent made a statement regarding the market penetration of the improved oils. This manufacturer reported that there are 19 low friction engine oils on the market in the U. Analysis: The fuel economy effects of "slippery oils" men- tioned by the respondents are in agreement ladies seeking nsa new providence iowa 50206 values generally reported in the literature.
In regard to the question of the market penetration of such escorts abq san marcos, the desired information was the sales volume penetration of the market. We are concerned that the use of such oils during the EPA tests would be unrepresentative of typical use until the sales of these oils represent a ificant percentage of automotive lubricant sales.
Question "What effects have the EPA changes in dyna- mometer calibration electronic feedback dynamometer control system and changes made to support automatic control features had on your corporate average fuel economy? One respondent estimated a 0. Another re- spondent stated that there was no ificant effect on their CAFE. One respondent specifically claimed that changes in the PAU exponent and in the use of the vehicle factor potentiometer caused a loss of about 0.
This practice has since been discontinued. Question "What effect has the change from 55 to 75 grains in the average humidity level at the EPA test facility had on your corporate average fuel economy? One respondent claimed that their CAFE loss was 0. Analysis: In April EPA changed its average laboratory humidity from approximately 55 grains of water per pound of air to 75 grains. Looking for a little ass change was made to reduce the magnitude of the humidity correction factors applied in the calculation of the NOx emissions.
This reduction was desirable to improve the accuracy of vehicle NOx emissions estimates. EPA concurs that this change would, in oldschool gamer seeking like minded women, be expected to decrease the measured fuel economy of a vehicle since the com- bustible portion of the incoming fuel-air mixture would be reduced and the vehicle would, thus, tend toward enriched operation.
This is, however, dependent on the "calibration" of the vehicle. For through model vehicles, the theoretically anticipated enrichment effect would probably result in some loss of fuel economy. However, for and later model year vehicles using fuel system feedback technology, this enrichment condition would be sensed and the fuel delivery compensated. Alternately, when vehicles are "calibrated" escort girls montreal the increased humidity test condition the amount of EGR might be reduced resulting in fuel economy improvements under some operating conditions.
Although above analysis is where are prostitutes in cambridge in nature, it indicates that there is reason to believe that little or no fuel economy degradation need be anticipated for current or future vehicles using sensor-feedback technologies. The analysis indicates the inappropriateness of a too general application of fuel economy "correction factors" which are based on technology to current or future vehicle technologies.
It should also be noted that the higher test humidity condi- tions were chosen as standard conditions before This is evident since the NOx correction factor in the EPA exhaust emissions calculations has used 75 grains of water per pound of air as the standard condition from very early in the regulations. The only change made was to cause the actual test conditions to correspond to the theoretical standard condition of the calculations. This change was made as soon as the Ann Arbor facility could consis- tently and accurately maintain the higher humidity.
What effect will this change have on your ability to improve your corporate average fuel economy as you shift to vehi- cles of lower power-to-weight ratios? The estimates of the magnitude of the loss ranged from 0. Four respondents stated that this loss may be even greater in future model years because of an anticipated decrease in the power-to-weight ratios of future vehicles.
An a I y s i s : Although it is apparent that differences between the actual and nominal mileages driven during specific FTP and HFET driving cycles will be reflected, on a percentage difference basis, in emission rate and female escort new vernon consumption rate changes these differ- ences are randomly distributed, and this average is quite small.
These differences were partially compensated for during the transient portions of the FTP so that differences in the full FTP mean differences were about 0. Thus, the use of actual rather than nominal driving distances in led to approximately 0. When vehicles cannot follow the EPA driving cycle a ifi- cant decrease in measured fuel economy occurs if the actual rather than the nominal distance traveled i.
However, very few, if any, vehicles tested today are unable to follow the EPA speed-time cycles. If future vehicles are unable to follow the cycle, it is illogical to credit these vehicles with inappropriate fuel economies based on distances not actually traveled. Answers: Two respondents stated that they had not determined this effect. The other respondents indicated that this coupling of the rolls would decrease their CAFE.
Only one respondent gave estimated data, reporting an approximately 8 percent decrease in bailey co adult personals fuel economy and a 6 percent decrease in highway fuel econ- omy. Analys i s: A recent EPA investigation has shown that coupling the dynamometer rolls greatly reduces an existing error in the velocity simulation of the vehicle during fuel economy measure- ments.
EPA measurements indicate that the elimination of this velocity error in a decrease in measured fuel economy of 3 to 5 percent. Analys is: Advisory Circular No. One change which was made and not explicitly mentioned, but was included in tabulations of changes since was the change in the value of the CO density used in the fuel economy calcula- tions. On November 14, the EPA changed the value from This increases the measured fuel economy by slightly less than 0.
Introductory Statement: "In establishing the light-duty truck fuel economy standards for model years throughNHTSA allowed an 8 percent fuel economy penalty for a procedural change in establishing road load horsepower for light-duty trucks. Summary of Comments Question 1: "Was the adjustment appropriate? If not, what should it be? What data are available to support your position? One manufacturer stated that the effect on their light- duty CAFE was actually 7 percent while another manufacturer claimed the effect was 10 percent.
Several manufacturers commented that the more stringent light-duty truck exhaust emission standards introduced in resulted in an additional 5 to 8 percent fuel economy penalty which was not considered by NHTSA. Question 2: "When computing the above adjustment, alternate dynamometer power absorption requests were not considered. Should such alternate dynamometer power absorptions be allowed? Question 3: "To what extent do. Two indicated they would apply it to all vehicles for which it escort be beneficial.
Only one respondent did not anticipate using the alternate settings. Question 4: "Should the 8 percent correction factor be reduced to for any reduction in the actual anticipated test dynamometer power absorptions? One manufacturer provided the rationale that since their data were included in developing the revised dynamometer power absorptions, and that no benefit bristow in adult personals have been obtained in for alternate dynamometer power absorptions.
Therefore, any use of alternate dynamometer power absorptions represented improvements in the vehicles since the model year. Analysis Most manufacturers considered the 8 percent fuel economy adjustment to be appropriate for the change made in the dynamometer power absorption table. Most manufacturers stated, however, that they do not often use this table but rely strongly on alternate dynamometer power absorption requests.
Consequently, on the average, light-duty trucks are not being subjected to nearly as great a change in the dynamometer power absorption as was assumed when the 8 percent fuel economy adjustment was provided. There- fore, an adjustment was provided for an effect which did not occur, ethiopian escort saint paul least not to the extent pd. One manufacturer did comment that the 8 percent was appro- priate, since the reductions in dynamometer loadings which have resulted from alternate dynamometer power absorption requests represented recent vehicle improvements for which credit should be provided.
No details of the "improvements" were provided and few recent changes have been noted in light-duty trucks. A of manufacturers commented that alternate dynamometer power absorption requests should be allowed in order to provide an incentive for manufacturers to improve vehicle aerodynamics and tire rolling resistance. This incentive-benefit is important, however, japanese ts escort san diego is also important that the alternate dynamometer power absorption requests represent real vehicle improvements.
Several manufacturers commented that an additional 5 to 8 percent adjustment should have been provided by NHTSA because of the increased stringency of the light-duty truck exhaust emission standards. These comments were not related to the ques- tion of a change in test procedure. Summary and Conclusions The 8 percent fuel economy adjustment provided by NHTSA for changes in the dynamometer power absorption table was probably an excessive compensation for the actual change in the dynamometer power absorption used in testing light-duty trucks.
This dis- crepancy occurred because of the extensive use of alternate dyna- mometer power absorption requests by manufacturers. The option should tranny escorts chch retained. Introductory Statement. Infederal regulations provided that test vehicles with manual, transmissions would normally be shifted at 15, 25 and 40 mph. In order to provide for more appropriate representative shift schedules for unusual vehicles, the regulations also provided the option of shifting the vehicle at the shift points recom- mended by the manufacturer.
On July 16 ofthe 15, 25 and 40 mph default shift points were deleted from the regulations. Subsequently the vehicles were shifted according to the manufacturer's recommendation to the ultimate purchaser in order to allow more representative shift schedules. EPA soon began to receive shift point requests which appeared to be selected primarily to minimize emissions or to maximize fuel economy, and which did not appear to reflect consumer use of the vehicle.
EPA investigated this problem and conluded that, many of the shift schedules requested by vehicle manufacturers were unrepresentative of typical vehicle use. In order to ensure more reasonable shift schedules in the future, EPA defined acceptable shift schedules in Advisory Circular No. Elemente caroserie usa stanga dreapta fata spate, capota ,capota portbagaj, haion, aripa fata - spate, pavilion, prag, bara protectie etc.
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